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How to Register a Sole Proprietorship (Private Firm) in Nepal

In Nepal, sole proprietorships are referred to as private firms. Learn about what steps you need to take to register a private firm as well as how the taxation system works.

Anja Simic
Written by Anja Simic
September 17, 2021
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Nepal is located in South Asia, mostly in the Himalaya mountains. It is bordering China in the North, with the border including the world's highest mountain peak, Mount Everest, and India in the South.

Located between the two fastest-growing economies in the world, this country gives you many import and export business opportunities. However, major industries include tourism, carpets, textiles, cigarettes, cement, brick, as well as small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills. Most of these businesses are operating as sole proprietorships.

Disclaimer: Be aware that this article is not a substitute for legal advice. Please always check official websites or seek legal advice before you take action.

Private firms in Nepal

In Nepal, sole proprietorships are referred to as private firms.

The private firm is described in the Private Firm Registration Act 1958. Sole proprietorship firms do not have a separate legal and natural person, and the liability of the owner is not limited. These forms of business are mostly used by individuals undertaking trading activities: retailers, shops and importers of goods, and professional service providers like lawyers and accountants. Private firms are easy to establish and dissolve. They are also easy to control; decision making is prompt and flexible since there is only one person operating it.

Private Firm Registration in Nepal

As mentioned before, the private firm registration is done under the Private Firm Registration Act 1958. Here we will explain the whole process.

To register the firm, you will need to provide the documents to the 

concerned department:

  • Department of Commence in the case of a commerce-related firm
  • Department of Cottage and Rural Industry in the case of the cottage and rural industry
  • Department of Industry for any other industry

These are the required documents for private firm registrations:

  • The name of the private firm
  • The address of the private firm
  • Objectives, functions, and the particulars of goods or commodities to be transacted by the private firm
  • The name and address of the owner and the name of their parents and grandparents
  • Other details, prescribed by the Government of Nepal by publishing a Notification in the Nepal gazette. 

Based on the capital of the firm, the registration fee needs to be paid. It costs between NPR 600 and 15,000.

No more than one private firm related to the same or similar objectives can be registered in the same person's name. 

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Tax Registration in Nepal

Now that you have our private firm settled, the next step is to register with the tax authorities. We will guide you on how to register with the Inland Revenue Department and obtain a Permanent Account Number (PAN).

  • Go to the Inland Revenue Department website and translate it to English, if you need to
  • Click on the Tax-Payer Portal
  • Next, click on Registration (PAN, VAT, EXCISE)
  • Expand the vertical menu by clicking +
  • Now choose Application for Registration
  • Fill out all the details
  • Choose the IRD office in your area in the Verifying Offices
  • You will obtain the Submission Number. Press the Continue button
  • Fill out your personal details and click on Save
  • Click on the Print button to get a copy of the application form
  • Take the printed copy to the IRD office you chose
  • The IRD office will then verify your details and provide you a PAN card. It is expected to take around one day.

You need to fill out the form in the Nepali language.

A person is required to register if their turnover from the supply of taxable goods exceeds NPR 5 million or their turnover from the supply of both goods and services exceeds NPR 2 million for the last 12 months.

VAT in Nepal

The normal VAT rate in Nepal is 13%. Some goods or services are exempted from VAT.

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